The life of the Indonesian people who live side by side with different religions we have encountered in several regions in Indonesia. Nyepi is an activity carried out by the Hindu community to meet needs, spiritual needs, spiritual needs, and physical needs. The implementation of Nyepi which is carried out through an order or series of Nyepi ceremonies is recognized as a form of acknowledgment of the existence of powers beyond their capabilities, which are called supernatural powers. The Nyepi ceremony is a Hindu festival that is celebrated every year as a commemoration of the Saka New Year.
In preparing for Nyepi, Hindus carry out various kinds of activities or ceremonial activities as part of a sacred obligation that is carried out. Before the implementation of Nyepi, there are several series of earlier ceremonies in it, including:
- Melasti ceremony
Melasti ceremony is a ceremony held by Hindus before carrying out the Nyepi Service. Melasti is held a minimum of two days to seven days before the implementation of the Catur brata retreat. The time of the Melasti ceremony is determined by Hindu religious leaders in a certain area, therefore the time of Melasti in one area with another area is not necessarily the same.
In this initial series, Hindus perform a purification ceremony, on this day all means of worship, especially Pratima (symbol of omnipotence), holy aracaaraca, spears, kris that are in the temple are paraded into the sea, rivers, lakes, focused on the source of holy water which is believed to be able to purify all tired (dirty) in humans and nature
The Melasti ceremony is a symbol of cleansing the human soul and sacred objects in the temple. The first step of the melasti ceremony is to bring the heirlooms to a beach, lake, or water source, which will then be cleaned by the Mangku through several processions of religious rituals.
- Tawur Kesanga Ceremony
The second stage is the Tawur Kesanga Ceremony which is held one day before the Nyepi service. The Tawur Kesanga ceremony begins with the reading of a prayer by the bowl with dishes that have been provided by the temple, followed by the tilem prayer followed by Hindus. Tawur Kesanga is a ceremony which means balancing the universe, namely between buana alit (humans) and buana agung (universe).
Tawur means to return or pay. As we know, humans always take natural resources to maintain their lives, the act of taking will settle in themselves / Karma Wasana, the act of taking needs to be balanced with the act of giving in the form of sincere offerings. According to the ejection of Sang Hyang Aji Swamandala, Tawur is a Bhuta Yadnya ceremony carried out by humans with the aim of welfare and the balance of the natural environment.
In East Java, Tawur sanga is a ceremony carried out by Hindus in the village or sub-district realm. Whereas in the realm of the Regency or the association of several cities, it is called Tawur Agung. The Tawur Sanga and Tawur Agung ceremonies are carried out by the Mangku and Hindu religious figures. Just like the melasti ceremony, in the Tawur Sanga Ceremony, there are also objects used during the event, including offerings that are prayed for by the Mangku. Tawur sanga is a level of ceremony that is carried out on the day before Nyepi worship. Tawur sanga is carried out by Hindus represented by the mangku by using offerings that are prayed for. One of these dishes is incense, chicken, coconut, and so on.
During Tawur Kesanga, Hindus carry out mencaru (Bhuta Yajna) at the village, sub-district, city, and provincial levels. This is adjusted to the local village, Kala, and Patra. The position sought in the implementation of Tawur Kesanga is the village road intersection, the grand intersection (Pempatan Agung), and the main intersection called Catus Patha for Hindus. so that this has become an obligation in implementation and has become a hereditary ritual. This also happened in the city of Palangka Raya although it was slightly different from the implementation in Bali but did not reduce the meaning and significance. The Kaharingan Hindus also take part in the implementation of Tawur Kesanga, by carrying out the Mamapas Lewu ritual. Judging from the purpose of carrying out the ritual of papapas lewu, it is also functioned to neutralize bad influences into a positive aura so that the balance of nature is balanced. Therefore, every Nyepi implementation jointly carries out Nyepi and Tawur Agung celebrations as part of a unity of positive values in maintaining the integration of Kaharingan into Hinduism. The implementation of Tawur Agung and Mamapas Lewu aims to maintain balance. The balance of Bhuana Alit, Bhuana Agung, the balance of Gods, Humans, and Bhuta, at the same time changing the power of bhuta into gods (nyomiang bhuta) in the hope of giving peace, prosperity, and the joy of the universe.
The ogoh-ogoh parade is the third stage that is carried out after the Hindus finish carrying out the Tawur Kesanga ceremony.
Ogoh-ogoh is a replica of the embodiment of evil spirits and evil qualities which are manifested in the form of a large statue or doll. Ogoh-ogoh is made of materials such as paper, styrofoam, rubber, and so on. Ogoh-ogoh in the Javanese and Sanskrit dictionaries are not identified, but according to the Balinese dictionary, ogoh-ogoh means a kind of statue made of bamboo and paper in the form of a Buthakala or giant.
Ogoh-ogoh is a tradition carried out by a community with a form of embodiment of evil spirits on large statues or dolls. We can see Ogohogoh at certain events, for example during the Saka New Year celebrations, village clean-up ceremonies, and so on. There are several opinions about the history of the emergence of ogoh-ogoh, some say that the forerunner of ogoh-ogoh is a lelakut statue that has a function to repel birds that eat agricultural produce in rice fields, there is also an opinion that at first ogoh-ogoh was a tradition of ngelawang by Ndong art Walls in the Karangasem and Gianyar areas of Bali. For Hindus who can afford it or who have sufficient funds, it is recommended to organize an ogoh-ogoh parade as a series of Nyepi events.
- Catur Brata Penyepian / The peak of Nyepi
The fourth stage is Catur Brata Penyepian which is better known as Nyepi worship which means that you are not allowed to do four things. The four things are observing geni (not starting a fire), observing lelungan (not traveling), observing auctioning (not having fun), and observing work (not working). Hindus perform the Catur Brata Penyepian worship starting from sunrise on the first day of the Saka month until the sun rises on the second Saka month.
The peak of Nyepi is a good day for self-reflection. The intensity of work is so great that we need to do self-reflection to become aware. According to I Wayan Suwena (2017: 22-23) At the peak of the Nyepi celebration, Hindus perform Catur Brata Nyepi, namely:
- Amati Geni means not to light a fire, the concept is that the human body is filled with fire: fire is emotion, desire, arrogance, envy, and envy. So that at this stage the human self is expected to be able to neutralize all types of fire in the body as the main form of self-introfection.
- Observe Karya means not working. The concept is that the human self is fulfilled with work activities to maintain life, although there is a need for self-reflection by not doing work (especially the mind) so that the body is in a balanced state.
- Observe Lelungan means not traveling. This self-concept needs to be calmed down, by resting and not traveling.
- Observing Lelanguan means not enjoying entertainment/not having fun. The concept is that this body needs to be reflected without activity by not enjoying entertainment and having fun, the human self also needs to be balanced and truly in a state of silence.
- Ngembak Geni Ngembak Geni is a series after Nyepi. Ngembak means free, and Geni means fire, so at this time Hindus are free to do all kinds of activities and return to their activities. In this series, Hindus pray together in holy places/temples, giving thanks for all His greatness and His protection. At this time also do Dharma Shanti, forgiving each other with family, friends, and society.
All Hindus in Indonesia simultaneously carry out the celebration of the holy day of Nyepi in accordance with the sequence, although the method of implementation is slightly different in each region, this is caused and influenced by the customs and culture that exist in each region. However, judging from the function and meaning of the celebration of the holy day of Nyepi in each region, it still has the same function and meaning, namely neutralizing negative influences into positive ones so that nature becomes balanced and harmonious.