Prabu Jayabaya was a king who was just and wise in ruling and had considerable attention to the fields of culture and literature. Jayabaya had a role in building Javanese literature. Prabu Jayabaya is believed to have produced works in the field of literature, namely in the form of predictions recorded in the Jayabaya Term. Prabu Jayabaya’s predictions by some Javanese people are believed to be a guide in understanding social changes or phenomena. However, some people believe that the Jayabaya Fiber Term is just a myth because the term has a meaning as a prediction from a religious perspective, prediction is an act of shirk. Fiber Term Jayabaya can be said as a work of literature and local knowledge that contains the values of life. The term that has meaning as a guide, which is then interpreted by the community as a prediction. Then the word Jayabaya etymologically comes from two syllables, namely “Jaya” which means glory or triumph, while “Baya” which means a dangerous situation or problem being faced.
The term Jayabaya, which is firmly embedded in Javanese tradition, is believed by historians to have come from the book of Musarar written by Sunan Prapen, the fourth ruler of Giri Kedaton. The early version of the Musarar or Jayabaya Book tells the history of Javanese life from ancient times to the fall of the Majapahit kingdom.
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In 1749, Musarar was rewritten by Prince Wijil 1 into poetry. The beginning of the story was slightly changed by taking the point of view of King Jayabaya from Kediri. Some historical texts at that time did mention Jayabaya was a king who was good at predicting. For example kakawin Bharatayudha and fiber Mahabharata by Mpu Sedah and Mpu Panuluh. They are poets who lived in the era of Jayabaya’s leadership in Kediri.
The literary touch of Prince Wijil 1 made Term Jayabaya considered an important work and a symbol of a new culture for the Javanese people. From these compositions, many other poets were inspired to write similar books with new sayings and predictions related to their respective historical environments.
So, is Term Jayabaya a divination text or a literary work?
Term Jayabaya is a literary work that tells about the growth of the countries in the Land of Java. The “forecast” contained in it is the result of observations and reflections on various socio-political issues that occurred in ancient society. Most of the issues raised in the Jayabaya Term have the potential to be repeated in the following eras, so the impression is like predicting the future.
Javanese tradition admits that the Jayabaya prophecy was written by Prabu Jayabaya, King of the Kingdom of Kadiri/Kediri (1135-1159 AD) with the title Sri Maharaja Sri Warmmeswara Madhusudanawatarani ndita Suhrtsingha Parakrama Digjayottunggadewan ama.
This very long title is written on three stone inscriptions found and known as relics of the king, namely the Hantang inscription (1135 AD), the Talan inscription (1136 AD), and the inscription from the village of Japan (1144 AD).
In his time, supported by the strength of a formidable navy, his power extended not only to the land of Java but to the coast of Kalimantan. In fact, Ternate became a subordinate kingdom of his kingdom. As kings and poets. Prabu Jayabaya looked far ahead with the eyes of the heart and feelings. He predicted a state of chaos, which he called the “wolak-walik ing era” or the state of the times when things turned upside down.
The term Jayabaya which continues to be popular from generation to generation has made the Dutch government pay more attention to the fiber of the Jayabaya term. So Mr. Pleyte, who was one of the Dutch Colonial Ministers who served around 1913-1918, called on all Indonesians so that the Term Jayabaya should not be ignored. The presence of struggle figures such as Prince Diponegoro and Hadji Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto is believed to be the figure referred to as Ratu Adil Herucokro. Then there were also many political figures during the Dutch colonial period who used the contents of Jayabaya’s prophecy as an effort to escape from Dutch colonialism. Even Ir. Sukarno when giving a speech always used the contents of Jayabaya’s predictions in gathering enthusiasm within the Indonesian people to be brave and unite to fight against Dutch colonialism to achieve an independent Indonesia. In a loud and loud voice, Bung Karno always said in front of the Indonesian people that what is meant by Ratu Adil is not a physical form like a human, it is just a figure of speech and what is meant by Ratu Adil is a just government where there is no misery, oppression, and suffering. experienced by the people. Therefore, what is meant by Ratu Adil according to Bung Karno is nothing but independence.
The use of the contents of Jayabaya’s predictions made by political figures during the Dutch colonial period has indirectly instilled the spirit of nationalism in the body of the Indonesian nation. The characteristics of nationalism can be seen, such as, a sense of love for the homeland, a sense of unity and oneness, and a passion for achieving independence free from all forms of colonialism and oppression.